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Jumat, 23 Januari 2009

The Human genom Project

Once genomic libraries became available, scientists began to condider ways to sequence all the clones in the genomic library in an organized way to obtain the nucleotide sequence of an organism's genome. The human genome project began in 1990 as a federally sponsored international effort to sequence the human genome and the genomes of several model organisms used in genetics research. At about the same time, other genome projects, sponsored by industry, got underway. The first genome from a free - living organism, a bacterium was sequenced and reported in 1995 by scientists at a biotechnology company.
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In 2001, the publicly funded Human genome Project and a private genome project undertake by Celera Corporation reported the first draft of the human genome sequence, covering about 96 percent of the gene - containing portion of genome. In 2003, the remaining portion of the gene coding sequence was completed and published. Work is now focused on sequencing the noncoding regions of the genome. Along the way, rhe genomes of fve organisms used in genetic research, E. coli (bannterium), S. cerevisiae (yeast), Caenorhabditis elegans (a roundworm), the fruit fly (D. melanogaster), and the mouse (Mus musculus) were also sequenced.
As genome project multiplied and more genome sequences werw deposuted in databases, a new discipline called Genomics, the study of genomes, come into existence. Genomics uses nucleotude sequence information in databases to study the structure, function, and evolution of genes and genomes. Genomics is drastically changing biology from a laboratory - based science to one combining lab experiments with information technology.
Geneticists and other biologists can use information in databases containing nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences, and gene interaction networks to answer experimental question in a matter of minutes instead of monyhs and years.
recombination DNA technology has not only hreatly accelerated the pace of research, generating new fields of study including genome projects and genomics, but has also given rise to the biotechnology industry, which das grown over yhe last 25 years to become a major component of the U.S. economy.

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